Developmental Milestones

Typical Speech Sound Development

By age 2:

  • /h/ as in “help”
  • /m/ as in “more”
  • /n/ as in “no”
  • /p/ as “pot”
  • /b/ as in “bear”
  • /d/ as “dog”

By age 3:

  • Zh as in “treasure”
  • Y as in “yes”
  • /w/ as in “we”
  • Ng as in “sing”
  • /t/ as in “top”
  • /k/ as in “car”
  • /g/ as in “go”

By age 3 years 6 months:

  • /f/ as in “feet”

By age 4:

  • /l/ as in lay
  • Sh as in “shoe”
  • Ch as in “chew”

By age 4 years 6 months:

  • J as in “jump”
  • /s/ as in “sun”
  • /z/ as in is “zebra”

By age 5:

  • /r/ as in “red”

By age 6:

  • /v/ as in “vase”

By age 8:

  • Th as in “this”

By age 8 years 6 months:

  • Th as in “thing”

Sources:

http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34:ages&catid=11:admin&Itemid=117

http://www.asha.org/slp/schools/prof-consult/norms/

Receptive Language (Understanding)

Birth to 3 months

  • startles to loud sounds
  • appears to recognize familiar voices and is comforted
  • smiles when spoken to

4 – 6 months

  • turns head/eyes to locate source of sounds
  • enjoys toys with lights/sounds

7 – 12 months

  • enjoys peek-a-boo
  • recognizes own name
  • recognizes names for common items like “bottle, juice”
  • is responding to some simple requests such as “wave bye-bye-bye, no, come here”

1 – 2 years

  • identifies body parts by pointing
  • follows simple commands and understands
  • Simple questions “throw ball, where’s shoes?”
  • identifies objects/people in pictures/books

2 – 3 years

  • follows 2 step commands “get the book and put on the chair”
  • understands spatial concepts (in, out, of) and descriptive concepts (big, little)

3 – 4 years

  • understands pronouns he/she, him/her
  • identifies colors by pointing
  • understands quantity concepts (one vs. more than one)
  • answers simple “who questions ‘where, what, who, when?

4 – 5 years

  • listens to short stories and answers questions about it

 

Sources:

http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34:ages&catid=11:admin&Itemid=117

http://www.asha.org/slp/schools/prof-consult/norms/

Expressive Language (Talking/Communicating)

Birth – 3 months

  • smiles at familiar face
  • makes cooing pleasure sounds

4 – 6 months

  • begins to make “babble” sounds with p, b, m
  • vocalizes when alone and when playing with caregiver

7 – 12 months

  • uses vocalizations to get attention vs. crying
  • babbles different syllable strings
  • uses simple gestures to express wants (raises arms to be picked up)
  • has a vocabulary of 1 or 2 words (bye-bye, mama, dada)

1 – 2 years

  • gains new vocabulary every month
  • uses pointer finger to express wants/needs
  • asks questions “what’s that?, where’s daddy?”
  • combines 2 words together

2 – 3 years

  • uses words for most all communication
  • speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the time
  • uses 2 – 4 word phrases to talk about events

3 – 4 years

  • tells about activities at school
  • speech is greater than 75% intelligible to all listeners
  • uses many sentences containing 4 or more words in each

4 – 5 years

  • uses descriptive concepts in conversation (the pink dress is my favorite)
  • able to tell make-believe stories
  • uses correct verb tenses

 

Sources:

http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34:ages&catid=11:admin&Itemid=117

http://www.asha.org/slp/schools/prof-consult/norms/